Resource Governance and Developmental States in the Global South: Critical International Political Economy Perspectives, edited with France Bourgouin. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
Using the framework of critical international political economy, the contributors challenge the long held views about the ways natural resources shape political and economic outcomes. They examine how the specific features of the resource sector creates particular dynamics of policy change, and therefore, the range of development options for the Global South move beyond adopting unregulated, open extractive markets. In so doing, they explore the extent to which neoliberalism as a global political project has both constrained and opened opportunities for economic development in the global South. The volume engages with development theory and political economy literature by exploring the ideational construction, implementation, and subsequent recalibration of mining reforms in the last three decades across Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
Demanding Justice in the Global South, edited with Lorenza Fontana, Jean Grugel, and Anders Uhlin. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
The book explores why and how social groups with minimal political resources and relatively marginal are able to claim rights and influence political processes. Our argument draws from several cases studies in the global South based on extensive fieldwork research, ranging from food riots in Burkina Faso, anti-dam mining activists in China, women’s rights movements’ repoliticisation of human rights documents in Malaysia, anti-mining movements in Ghana and India, subcontracted workers’ movement in Chile, and the Arab Occupy Movement in the USA. The main argument is that the business of demanding justice requires a combination of the strategic deployment of rights-based frames and seizing opportunities as activists engage with power-holders. This involves creative and innovative frames and use of language, using inside and outside strategies of engagement with state institutions, and placing the experiences of injustice and marginality at the heart of political mobilisation. The volume offers new theoretical insights on social justice and citizenship debates, as well as contributing to social movements and contentious politics literature, which still fails to explain how and why politically weak social actors are able to participate actively in social movements.
Building Developmental Capacities: State-owned Enterprises and Natural Resources in Chile and Brazil
This is my first research monograph and it examines political choices and state-crafting as the key explanatory factors regarding why successful resource-rich countries are able to design market liberalisation policies aimed at attracting foreign direct investment (FDI) while actively retaining government authority over strategic industries. Building unto a political economy and comparative politics framework, the book explains how states transform their resource industries into leading sectors. Since the 1980s, market reforms swept the developing world, and this included an agenda of privatisation and foreign capital participation in previously nationalised industries. Despite the overwhelming pressure for liberalisation, path dependency powerfully influences the trajectory of institutional change in strategic industries. This involves taking into account the initial conditions which shaped neoliberalism, but importantly, how these initial conditions interact with existing patterns of state-MNC relations. Examining Chile’s copper and Brazil’s oil industry, the book argues that national elites were able to consolidate a policy consensus around opening market reforms without fundamentally changing the nature of state-MNC relations. In Chile, the strong legacy of Pinochet’s neoliberal reform constrained the Left-Centre government (1989-2009) from reversing the entry of private capital. Instead, Chile adopted a broad liberal reforms through a series of laws that enshrine the role of foreign capital and private sector in the mining industry. Yet the Chilean state retains control over its copper mining by undertaking corporate governance reforms of the state-owned enterprise without undergoing privatisation. By contrast, in Brazil, the legacy of developmentalism meant that market liberalisation was rather limited. It was confined to breaking state monopoly in the oil industry, introducing a new regulatory agency, and to introduce domestic competition. However, similar to Chile, the state retains control over the oil industry by limiting the corporate governance reforms in Petrobras. Such reforms were confined to increasing the flexibility of the state oil enterprise to maximise its operational capacity in the domestic market. Overall, the case studies demonstrate the importance of state-crafting, but also, how political elites utilise institutional reforms to their advantage. The importance of such pragmatism, conversely, is highlighted by the incapacity of oil-rich countries like Venezuela to successfully transform its oil wealth into sustainable economic development.
Refereed Journal Articles
2014. ‘Protest, Citizenship and Democratic Renewal: The Student Movement in Chile’, with Jean Grugel, Citizenship Studies.
2010. ‘Reconstituting the Neostructuralist State: The Political Economy of Continuity and Change in Chilean Mining Policy’, Third World Quarterly, 31 (8): 1413-1433.
Manuscript under review/in preparation
‘Path Dependency and Brazil’s State Capitalism: Lessons from the Mining and Oil Sector Reforms’, with Eliza Massi, Latin American Politics and Society, under review.
‘Putting Mining at Work towards Poverty Reduction: Challenges from Mongolia and the Philippines’, with Jean Grugel and Pascale Hatcher, Economy and Society, under review.
‘The Role of Labour in Transforming Oil Politics: Lessons from Brazil, Nigeria, and Norway’, with Håvard Haarstad and Andrew Lawrence, World Politics, to be submitted January 2015.
‘Reforming Brazil’s Oil Industry: Towards a Resource-based Developmental Strategy?’, Economy and Society, to be submitted December 2014.
‘Civil Society as a Space for Democracy: Protest Politics and Mining Governance in the Philippines’, with Alvin Camba, Studies in Comparative International Development, to be submitted December 15, 2014.
‘The Rise, Fall, and Rise (Again) of Industrial Policy: Analyzing Brazil’s Sectoral Reforms’, with Eliza Massi, World Development, in preparation.
‘The Political Economy of New Developmentalism in Latin America and Africa’, with Jesse Ovadia, World Development, in preparation.
‘The Politics of State-backed Energy Governance in Brazil and China’, with Chun-Fung Chen, World Politics, in preparation.